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Study Aid 10: The Spread of the Renaissance Outside of Italy

The Italian aesthetics developed over the 15th and 16th centuries eventually spread to other parts of Europe. This process was usually gradual or incremental, resulting in early designs that were hybrids of local Gothic traditions and the imported Renaissance ornamentation. Pure examples of Italian Renaissance taste outside of Italy are relatively rare through 1550. With time, however, most European countries developed their own interpretations of Renaissance motifs that took into account local conditions, traditions, and preferences.

France
Although the initial planning of Francoise I's royal hunting lodge, the Chateau de Chambord (c. 1519-1550, Loire Valley) is believed to be the work of an Italian Renaissance architect, Domenico da Cortona, the building's rounded towers and roofline betray an adherence to medieval traditions. Serlio's works in France were purer examples of Italian Renaissance aesthetics (Ancy le France, 1546, Burgundy). Serlio also introduced the U-shaped townhouse plan that became standard for elite dwellings in the French city. The remodeling of the Louvre, 1546-, by Pierre Lescot and the Chateau of Anet by Philibert de l'Orme, 1540s, demonstrated the maturing of Renaissance ideas in a particularly French mode.

England
Italian architects never came to England, so examples of academic Renaissance design are not seen there until the early 1600s. Like Chambord in France, the great houses of the Elizabethan period are a combination of native traditions and Renaissance formaility and ornamentation (e.g. Hardwick Hall, 1590-97, built for Elizabeth of Hardwick perhaps by archtect Robert Smythson). The Renaissance influence on simpler houses may be limited to a generalized symmetry and multi-story arrangement, e.g.the half-timbered Little Moreton Hall, near Stoke-on-Trent, 1450, 1550-80. A pure form of Italian Renaissance aesthetics was introduced by Inigo Jones. Jones had traveled in Italy where he met Scamozzi and purchased many of Palladio's drawings. His works in England display these influences in an assured and proper manner (e.g. Queen's House, Greenwich, 1616-; Banqueting House, London, 1619-1622, created for King James I).

Germany, Holland, Flanders
Mannerist ornamentation was frequently applied to the characteristic, narrow rowhouses of these areas. However, larger private and public buildings demonstrated a more complete understanding of Renaissance principles, (e.g. Amsterdam Town Hall, 1648-1655, Jacob van Campen. Van Campen's Mauritshuis, (The Hague, Netherlands 1633-5) clearly demonstates the influence of Palladio.

Spain
In general, the first buildings in Spain to display applied Renaissance ornamentation are called Plateresque, and this Hispanic interpretation was transplanted to the "New World" by the conquest e.g. Monastery of San Miguel at Huejotzingo, near Puebla, Mexico, 1544-1571, probably designed by Juan de Alameda, a priest; the Monastery of San Augustin at Acolman, outside Mexico City, 1540-60. The palace for Charles V (1527-68) built into the Moorish Alhambra at Granada is the earliest example of pure Renaissance monumental design outside of Italy. The architect, Pedro Machuca, had studied in Italy and its plan features a circular, colonnaded courtyard. The Escorial (or San Lorenzo del Escorial) erected 30 miles outside of Madrid as the imperial palace of King Philip II (1562-82, Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera architects) was an enormous but terribly austere variation on the Renaissance cross-in-square plan. Besides the royal quarters, the building also included a monastery, college, and church.


Chateau de Chambord

Date: 1519-1550
Location: Loire Valley, France
Architect: D. da Cortona?
Patron: Francois I

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Aerial View

Aerial View

Aerial View

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Plan

Exterior View

Exterior View

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Exterior View

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Interior View - Double Spiral Staircase


Hardwick Hall

Date: 1591-1597
Location: Derbyshire, England
Architect: Robert Smythson?
Patron: Elizabeth (Bess) of Hardwick

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Ground Floor Plan

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Plans of the Upper Floors

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Front and Side Elevations

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Side Elevation

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Front Elevation

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Interior View of the Long Gallery

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Great High Chamber


Little Moreton Hall

Date: 1450, 1550-1580
Location: Cheshire, England
Architect: Unknown
Patron: Moreton Family

Ground Floor Plan and
Building Sequence Plan

Aerial View

South Wing

Interior View of the Long Gallery


Banqueting House

Date: 1614
Location: London
Architect: Inigo Jones
Patron: James I


Elevation


Monastery of San Miguel

Date: 1544-1571
Location: Huejotzingo, Mexico
Architect: Juan de Alameda (?)

Plan of the Church and Primary Monastic Buildings

Entrance to the Atrium

Cloister

Monastery Church and Atrium

"Posa" Chapel in the Atrium

Meditation Room in Monastery

Refectory in Monastery


Escorial

Date: 1562-1582 AD
Location: North of Madrid, Spain
Architect: de Toledo & de Herrera
Patron: Philip II

Plan

Early Birds-Eye View

Elevation

View of Church and Central Patio

Interior View
Bedroom of Philip II